Top 5 living creatures produced artificially.
Genetic engineering and cloning: how it works.
Science fiction doesn’t seem so unrealistic anymore – scientists put it into life. Proof of this is the scientific breakthroughs made by researchers in the field of creating “artificial” creatures. Thus, in the second half of the XX century scientists were able to “read” the biological information, which was contained in the genes of living organisms. As a result, so called “genetic engineering” became possible – the technology of separation of certain genes from one organism and their introduction into another organism. On this basis scientists managed to create not only genetically modified plants and agricultural crops, but also animals with “artificial” set of genes.
The creatures bred by genetic engineering were not, in fact, a “copy” of their parents, but a “product” of scientists with a programmed set of genes that influence their further development. For example, pink mice or animals not subject to certain types of diseases were bred.
Quite differently, they were completely “artificial” organisms, which became known as clones. Scientists managed to “extract” cells from the bio-material of animal , which then were introduced into the organism of animals of the same kind by means of artificial fertilization. As a result, “copies” of those animals, from which a biological sample was taken, began to appear. Thus, 1990-2000 marked the appearance of cloned animals for the inhabitants of the planet, the most famous of which became:
A sheep bred in 1996 in the nursery of the Roslin Institute in Scotland, has caused a sensation all over the world.
One way or another, Dolly proved her vitality – she lived 6.5 years and produced six healthy lambs.
At the end of her life, Dolly got a lung infection and had to be put to sleep. Now her stuffed animal is on display at the Edinburgh Royal Museum.
2. Polly and Molly
Two sheep that were cloned in July 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was the second most important breakthrough in the scientific world – if Dolly was the first animal clone, Polly and Molly were the first cloned animals with human genes embedded, i.e. the first genetically modified animals. It was planned that sheep could be useful for scientists to study human diseases associated with poor blood clotting.
The first cloned dog bred by scientists from Seoul National University in 2005. Since the birth of Dolly, many other animals have been cloned – cats, cows, horses, mice and others – but the dog has not been cloned for a long time. As a result, 123 animals participated in the cloned dog breeding experiment, but only three were able to become pregnant after artificial insemination. Two puppies were born and only one was left, and was named Snoopy . This puppy became a clone that appeared from the ear cell as an adult Afghan hound. After that, Snoopy was involved in cloned dog breeding in 2008, when 10 puppies were born, whose parents were also clones.
The first vertebrate in the world to be cloned was a sporza frog. The frog was cloned by Professor of Zoology at Oxford University John Gordon in 1970. Cloning experiments with intact cell cores were carried out by a British scientist beginning in 1958. By the way, in describing the results of the experiments carried out by the scientist, the biologist John Haldane for the first time used the word “clone” in relation to a living being.
The first time a cat was cloned was by scientists from the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Texas in 2001. The kitten’s name was “CopyCat”. This experiment was carried out by the American company Ge
netic Savings and Clone, which after the birth of a cloned kitten began cloning pets on a commercial basis.
A new aspect: the return of fossils
Amazing prospects managed, since 2013, to get a cloned frog embryo, which extinct 30 years ago, for scientists and bio-engineers at the University of New South Wales. The experiment was based on tissue samples of the Australian frog Rheobatrachus silus, frozen in the 1970s. However, the embryos could not be “resurrected” for long time – they did not survive for even a few days. However, as scientists believe, this opens up great opportunities for new scientific breakthroughs. In particular, the endangered species such as the woolly mammoth and the non-flying Dodo bird are in line.